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APA (7th Edition) Style Guide: In Text Citations

APA (7th Edition) Style Guide

In-Text Citations Directory

In-Text Citation Checklist

In-text Citation Overview

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text.

  • Example: (Jones, 1998).

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges.

  • Example: (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201)

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Citations for Direct Quotes

APA encourages paraphrasing overusing direct quotes.  Use direct quotes when:

  • Reproducing an exact definition
  • The author has said something memorably or succinctly
  • When you want to respond to exact wording

When creating a citation for a direct quote, provide author, year and page number for both narrative and parenthetical citations.

Ex.  University of Southern California (2020) "direct quote from author" (p. 4)  OR  "direct quote from author" (University of Southern California, 2020, p. 4).

How to cite specific parts of a source:

Source Part Format Example
Single Page p. # p.14
Multiple Pages pp. #-# pp.14-24
Paragraph Number para. #

para. 4

Multiple Paragraphs paras. #-# paras. 14-24
Presentation Slide # Slide 4
Table or Figure Table # or Figure # Figure 4.2
Multimedia/Audiovisual Timestamp hour:minutes:second or minute:second 2:45:13
Heading or Section Name name of section section Human resources section


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